AARP International

Living, Learning and Earning Longer Relevant Resources and Reports 

AARP Resources

Ageism and Age Discrimination

  • Images Shape Attitudes About Aging. October 2022. AARP and FrameWorks Institute fielded an implicit association test, the findings of which show that aging advocates and communicators should consider not only how aging and older people are framed in writing, but also how they are depicted in images.
  • Unemployed Older Adults Encounter Age Discrimination. September 2022. Unemployed adults react to their situation in different ways based on length of time out of work. But one factor affects nearly all unemployed older workers: age discrimination.
  • Age Bias in Job Postings Hurts Older Workers. August 2022. Age bias continues to be a barrier to older workers in the job market. Although job postings may not explicitly exclude older workers, subtle word choices discourage and deter them from applying. Older job seekers not only miss out on positions they are qualified for, but there are also few ways for them to fight back legally.
  • Age Discrimination Among Workers Age 50-Plus. July 2022. The AARP Work & Jobs Data Series demonstrates that age discrimination continues to create obstacles to getting hired. As a result, there is strong support among older workers for strengthening the United States’ age discrimination laws. 
  • Ageism Is Alive and Well in Advertising. September 2021. Some advertisers ignore or show little respect for older people — a remarkably shortsighted attitude. A 2021 AARP survey found that 62 percent of older consumers agree they “wish ads had more realistic images of people my age.” Forty-seven percent concurred that “ads of people my age reinforce outdated stereotypes.” 
  • Age Discrimination Continues to Hold Older Workers Back. 2021. AARP’s Research team finds that even as the US economy improves, older workers still report high levels of age discrimination in the workplace. Nearly all workers surveyed agree that laws to combat age discrimination should be stronger.
  • The Economic Impact of Age Discrimination Report. 2020. AARP-sponsored research discovers that American industries forfeited an average boost of over 4 percent to GDP in 2018 over the previous year as a result of workplace age discrimination. 

The Multigenerational Workforce from a Business Perspective

  • AARP Targets Employee Wellness Programs in New Bias ComplaintReuters, July 2022. AARP is challenging a construction company’s policy that workers who decline to join an employee wellness program and submit to medical screenings pay thousands of dollars in additional insurance premiums. AARP filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC) on behalf of an employee who claims the policy violates the Americans with Disabilities Act.
  • The People-Focused Company: Why Age Diversity Matters More Than You Think. January 2022. A multigenerational workforce yields a stronger pipeline of talent, strengthens business continuity, and helps companies close the labor shortage gap. Moving forward, businesses should prioritize age and experience inclusion as well as a focus on recruitment, retention, and reconnection. 
  • Diversity in the Workplace: The New Multigenerational Workforce. April 2021. AARP-sponsored a live event with The Washington Post to highlight the benefits of a multigenerational workforce and tools to help organizations retain and train employees in the digital age.

Supporting Working Family Caregivers

  • MESSAGE TO EMPLOYERS: Family Caregivers Strengthen Your Workforce. October 2022. There are 53 million caregivers in the U.S. providing care to people of all ages, including younger folks with special needs. Employers can help these caregivers navigate responsibilities and time pressures while staying productive on the job to strengthen their organization, preserve their talent base, and boost their bottom line.
  • Working Caregivers' Worries Over Workplace Return. August 2021. The post-pandemic transition back to the workplace may be rocky, specifically for caregivers. In an AARP survey of working caregivers, three in four respondents worried about managing their responsibilities upon return. Perks established during the pandemic such as flexible or alternate schedules are so valued that 43 percent of respondents would consider looking for a new job if new benefits were taken away; another 22 percent were unsure.
  • The Economic Impact of Supporting Working Family Caregivers. March 2021. AARP-sponsored research suggests that stronger workplace support for caregivers age 50+ could add $1.7 trillion to U.S. GDP in 2030. Watch the recording of the report’s launch event, co-sponsored by Forbes, here.
  • AARP/JUST Capital Corporate Guides. March 2021. JUST Capital and AARP developed three briefs for companies that feature promising practices for paid sick leavework from home, and dependent care policies to improve employee retention and productivity.
  • Caring Locally for Caregivers: How State and Local Laws Protect Family Caregivers from Discrimination at Work. February 2021. AARP and The Center for WorkLife Law analyze the different protections afforded to U.S. family caregivers on federal, state, and local levels. Federal law prohibits only certain types of discrimination, but some states and local jurisdictions provide far more protection.
  • Global Insights on the Multigenerational Workforce. August 2020. AARP surveyed employers in 36 OECD countries in 2019 and 2020. Responses confirmed that older workers are remaining in the workforce in larger proportions, defying stereotypes, contributing to business growth – including higher profit margins – and still fighting ageism and discrimination. Global employers are uniquely positioned to support and facilitate the development of age-inclusive work environments.
  • Companies Expand Family-Friendly Policies but Focus Favors Parents Over Caregivers. 2020. AARP and S&P Global conducted research that shows COVID-19 has put parental and family leave policies in the spotlight. The study is based on an S&P Global/AARP survey of 53 U.S. companies in the S&P 1200, and it found that many companies recognize that meeting employee’s needs supports their bottom lines.
  • AARP Family Caregiving: Employee Resource Group Toolkit. 2020. AARP and the Elevate Team present a toolkit for leveraging Employee Resource Groups (i.e., affinity groups) to build the careers of employees with caregiving responsibilities.
  • How to Support Employees Who are Caring for Others During the COVID-19 Pandemic. 2020. The AARP Family Caregiving team shares 10 recommended actions for employers to take to support employees with caregiving responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  •  Something's Gotta Give. 2020. AARP and S&P Global conducted research that showed COVID-19 has put parental and family leave policies in the spotlight, and in many ways has accelerated the shift toward companies adopting more flexible caregiver leave and workplace policies across the U.S. private sector.

Building, Managing, and Understanding a Multigenerational Workforce

  • How to Retire Inequality, According to the CEOs of TIAA and AARPFast Company, December 2022. 25% of women ages 50 to 64 are not at all confident they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout retirement. Businesses and policymakers should act now to avoid leaving women vulnerable in their senior years by removing barriers to economic security and mobility, expanding opportunities for career advancement, prioritizing equal pay, and offering enhanced employee benefits. 
  • Older Workers Are Switching Jobs for More Money. September 2022. According to a survey from AARP Research, better pay was the biggest motivator for older workers considering switching jobs. But potential job switchers were also seeking other types of fulfillment such as opportunities for growth and work that is better aligned with their passions.
  • Workers’ Priorities Have Shifted to Overall Well-Being. August 2022. One in five workers age 50-plus have shifted how they prioritize their well-being over their job since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. A widespread quest for wellness has prompted 94% of workers to engage in at least one healthy behavior—whether that’s getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet, or exercising regularly.
  • Disparities Persist in Older-Worker Unemployment Rates. August 2022. Despite overall low unemployment rates, disparities across different races and ethnicities have carried over and shifted from before the COVID-19 pandemic. Asian workers age 55-plus went from experiencing the lowest rates of unemployment to the highest. For Black workers, unemployment increased, even as other groups started to see overall job growth again. 
  • Older Americans Are Rethinking Work and Life. July 2022. Amidst headlines about the Great Resignation, AARP CEO Jo Ann Jenkins recognizes that, for many, the decision to leave their jobs early was never just about work. She writes that we are witnessing a Great Reflection that is far from over. What we do know is that it has led many of us on a newfound search for meaning in our lives.
  • Financial Need Influences Work in Retirement for Older Adults. July 2022. As we live and work longer, the way older workers experience retirement is shifting. 42% of adults age 50-plus either are working in retirement for financial reasons or expect to do so. Over half (57%) of all non-retirees age 50-plus expect to work in retirement.
  • 6 Things to Know About Working with a Younger Mentor—and Why You Should. July 2022. “Reverse mentoring”—relationships where a younger mentor works with a more seasoned protégé—can be an effective way for workers to connect and learn from each other across generations. AARP shares tips on how to find and work with a younger mentor.
  • LGBTQ Adults 45+ Are Worried About Discrimination and Support as They Age. June 2022. There are more than 2.4 million LGBTQ adults over age 50 in the United States, and many have concerns around caring for themselves and loved ones as they age.
  • Labor Force Participation for the 65+ Remains Below Pre-Pandemic Levels. June 2022. US employment levels and labor force participation rates have generally recovered from pandemic-related changes. However, many workers who retired during the pandemic were already at or beyond retirement age. This makes it less likely that they will return to the workforce—though larger numbers returning is not an impossibility.
  • Older Americans are an overlooked solution to the ongoing talent shortage, says AARP CEOFortune, June 2022. Age diversity is still often an afterthought. That's something AARP CEO Jo Ann Jenkins wants to change, especially as more retirees re-enter the workforce, either out of financial necessity or because they feel they have more to contribute.
  • The Great Realization: What Employers Should Realize About Age DiversityForbes, June 2022. AARP Senior Vice President for Global Thought Leadership Jean Accius reflects on how the workforce changed during the pandemic. Future focus areas for all boards and CEOs should be developing a multigenerational workforce strategy to retain and attract top talent. 
  • How Older Adults Are Managing Their Emotional and Mental Wellbeing. May 2022. After more than two years of the pandemic, most older adults report that their emotional and mental health are very good. However, the lasting impacts of the pandemic, the Russian invasion of Ukraine, and domestic politics have all contributed to higher levels of anxiety.
  • 5 Unexpected Reasons Retirees Are Returning to Work. May 2022. According to Indeed, 3.3% (1.7 million) of those who retired during the pandemic are employed again. While no one goes into retirement expecting to return to work, there can be unforeseen reasons for doing so such as inflation, a changing work landscape, and loneliness.
  • Why Older Workers Should Be Part of Your Company's DEI StrategyNationSwell, April 2022. As employers of all sectors scramble to fill job openings, one key solution is hiding in plain sight: older workers. Companies can make age a dimension of their DEI strategy by offering returnships, partnering with organizations that help recruit age-diverse talent, increasing worker retention, and removing age limits on apprenticeship programs.
  • Job Reskilling and Upskilling Among the 50+. April 2022. 2022 survey data from AARP finds that the majority of adults (57%) are willing to learn new skills if requested by their employer, and 42% are interested in receiving additional training if it were available for free. Yet despite this willingness to learn, only 32% of adults participated in job training in the past two years.
  • Rising Prices and Increasing Expenses Worry Workers: AARP Financial Security Trends Survey. March 2022. AARP’s Financial Security Trends Survey finds that rising prices are a top financial concern for workers; about one in four individuals say their financial situation is worse than it was 12 months ago; and, both debt and increasing expenses make it difficult to save. Top barriers to saving are daily expenses and debt payments. 
  • What Older Adults Think About Work During Pandemic. February 2022. For older workers, career decisions have also become choices concerning their personal health and retirement. An AARP Research survey of people age 50-plus suggests that while the pandemic has had a broad impact, proximity to planned retirement age may have played a bigger role in older adults’ decision-making. 
  • An Overdue Shift in the Modern WorkplaceNationSwell, February 2022. As people live and work longer, workplaces should be inclusive for all employees. Shifts in the workforce and the DEI environment are creating opportunities for learning and development, especially for older workers.
  • Great Resignation or Great Reset? What's Your Path? WorkingNation, January 2022. During the Great Resignation, older workers are dropping out of the labor market due to concerns about their health during the pandemic, fears for others’ health when they are caregivers, and a renewed sense of purpose and belonging that is not necessarily tied to one job.
  • AARP Work & Jobs Data Series: Current Workforce Trends Among the 50+. 2022. Employers are having to think of innovative ways to draw in new talent and keep their current employees engaged and feeling valued. In 2022, AARP Research began highlighting workforce trends on a variety of topics as they relate to workers age 50 and over. Data for each topic was gathered through a nationally representative online survey with results posted in an annotated questionnaire. For more information, please contact Lona Choi-Allum at lallum@aarp.org
  • The Future of Work for the 50+: Considerations for Workers and Employers. Nation Swell, December 2021. AARP has identified five megatrends that are shaping the future of work – Longevity, Lifelong Learning, Income Inequality, Advances in Tech, and the Rise in Contingent Work – as well as how those megatrends will specifically impact people age 50 and older. It is possible to keep pace with rapid change by giving workers the skills and support systems that ensure the economy thrives.
  • Hiring for Experience: Employer Attitudes Towards Credentials as Proof of Skills. November 2021. In late 2021, an AARP survey showed that many employers (62%) occasionally hire workers lacking required degrees, but few (12%) do it often. In contrast, when evaluating skills, many employers place greater value on work experience (56% “very important”) compared to educational credentials.
  • 10/20/2021 Event Recap: Workforce Diversity. October 2021. In recent years, environmental, social, and governance (ESG) metrics have gained greater prominence for companies, shareholders, and policymakers. AARP partnered with the Bipartisan Policy Center to present an event exploring topics under the “S” of ESG such as, workplace diversity, with a specific focus on racial, gender, and age inclusion. 
  • Age at the Nexus of Workplace Equity, Innovation, and CreativityNation Swell, October 2021. To build and maintain an age-inclusive workplace, businesses need to: create policies to support a multigenerational workforce; make jobs attractive to a diverse talent base; and, maintain and develop employee skills across generations.
  • Older Women Workers' Jobs Were Disrupted During COVID-19. September 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic widely impacted midcareer and older (ages 40-65) female workers. About 40 percent of survey respondents experienced at least one job interruption. Of those still unemployed, 70 percent were out of work for six months or more. One-quarter saw their financial situation worsen during the pandemic.
  • 10 Career Moves to Make in Your 50s. September 2021. AARP Research found that 61 percent of employed workers ages 40 to 65 who were concerned they could lose their job in 2021, thought their age would be a factor. To stay marketable and accelerate their career, midlife employees can shift to a consultant mindset, give their LinkedIn profile a makeover, tap a hidden job market, and take a host of other actions.
  • 5 Tips to Help Upskill Midcareer Workers. September 2021. COVID-19 altered the future of work, in part by creating an increased rationale for automation. Intensifying demand for skilled workers also provides members of the workforce greater leverage to seek jobs with the flexibility and growth opportunities they desire. These trends call for a renewed commitment to support for upskilling and reskilling.
  • Employment and Wages Rise for Older Workers. August 2021. AARP highlights how ADP, a benefits management firm, found the 2020-to-2021 jobs increase rate for workers ages 55+ outpaced the rate for ages 25-34 and 35-54. Women over age 55 also had more luck finding jobs than men (4.9 percent growth compared to 4 percent for male counterparts) which was possibly related to women’s more extensive job losses in 2020.
  • 6 Ways to Add Age in Your Diversity and Inclusion Guide. March 2021. More than half of the 6,000 global employers surveyed by AARP in 2020 revealed that they do not include age in their diversity and inclusion policies. Potential ways for organizations to change this include: being deliberate about age as a diversity element; reexamining hiring practices; and reviewing management practices. 
  • How to Improve Age Diversity During Hiring. January 2021. The AARP Work & Jobs team identifies steps for organizations to take to heighten age-inclusivity in recruitment and interviewing processes.
  • Older Workers Are Willing and Eager to Learn New Skills. 2021. AARP shares survey results demonstrating that older workers are eager to learn new skills, pushing back against stereotypes that may suggest otherwise. Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino workers are particularly interested in additional job trainings.
  • 10 Principles for Managing Mixed-Age Teams. August 2020. Best practices for managing multigenerational teams are not entirely different than those for managing teams in general. AARP shares recommendations for leveraging a mixed set of strengths.
  • The Gig Economy is Creating New Opportunities for Older Americans. 2021. Despite potential drawbacks of independent contractor arrangements, many workers near or past retirement age do not need or want steady, full-time work. AARP shares the perspective of Katharine Abraham, professor at the University of Maryland, who says potential benefits of gig work can be community engagement and supplemental income.
  • Ensuring the Financial Security of All Workers While They Work and When They Retire. 2021. While older Americans are living longer and retiring later, the nature of work has started to transform. Non-traditional working arrangements, such as part-time or contingent work, can offer flexibility and supplemental income, but they may not always ensure workers’ financial security. 
  • Five Steps to Build a Better Labor Market in the Future of Work. 2021. Over 70 million American workers – many of whom are age 50-plus – have been Skilled Through Alternative Routes (STARs), as opposed to a traditional college degree. Reimagining job descriptions and hiring requirements, providing more upskilling opportunities, and building a new talent category for STARs can benefit business. 
  • Lifelong Learning on the Way to Retirement. 2021. Many workers near retirement age find themselves lacking the financial resources to leave the workforce. To remain competitive in the full-time job market, older adults are increasingly taking advantage of opportunities to go back to school or attend short-term trainings. Others are developing new skills while searching for part-time income. 
  • More Companies are Offering Internships for Adults. January 2020. ‘Returnships,’ or internships for adults returning to the workforce after time away, help with reentry to the hiring game. Returnship mentors can be key sources of support for this transition.
  • Say This, Not That: How to Remove Age Bias from Your Job Descriptions. 2020. AARP provides hiring managers with examples of common, biased words in job descriptions as well as examples of rhetoric to remedy that bias.

LLEL Collaborative Member Resources

  • It’s All That Young Job Seekers Are Asking For: StabilityThe New York Times, December 2022. Handshake surveyed about 1,400 recent college graduates and current seniors to ask about their top job search priority: 73 percent said stability. Younger workers are starting to ask more questions about employers' flexibility and compensation upfront, and layoffs at large companies such as Meta, Amazon, and Twitter have served as a reality check. The bottom line is that younger workers' priorities are shifting, and they are looking for stability and economic security instead of fancy workplace perks and free lunches. 
  • Five Strategies for Creating A Future-Ready WorkforceForbes, November 2022. Understanding demographic trends, combined with authentic company actions, will help employers circumvent the challenges presented by the forces of specialization, scarcity, rivalry, and humanity. These actions could include putting employees first, investing in talent, and rewarding performance, innovation, teamwork, and constructive pushback.
  • Employers Are Feeling Employees’ Financial Pain, Enhancing BenefitsSHRM, October 2022. According to Bank of America's 2022 Navigating a New Era of Financial Wellness report, with inflation outpacing salary gains, employers are feeling more responsible for employees' financial wellness. The Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies also finds that retirement expectations differ among generations in its report Emerging from the COVID-19 Pandemic: Four Generations Prepare for Retirement. SHRM highlights key findings and analysis of both studies. 
  • Rethink: How do Americans view their economic opportunities? McKinsey & Company, October 2022. Companies can help address today’s economic challenges. They could start by thinking about the flexibility offered. They can also consider geographic mismatches and explore ways to access rural talent. Finally, they can reflect on the mental-health struggles employees are experiencing.
  • An Uptick in Elderly Poverty: A Blip, or a Sign of Things to Come? The New York Times, October 2022. To prevent the poverty rate for older adults from rising further, advocates recommend three actions: shoring up employer-sponsored retirement programs, helping older people earn more by working longer if they need to, and basing eligibility for public benefits on a more realistic definition of economic hardship.
  • Workplace Diversity & Inclusion: Why it Matters and How You Can Promote ItRandstad, August 2022. Workplace diversity and inclusion has become a crucial consideration for employers. Randstad produced an in-depth guide exploring how this subject relates to company bottom lines and why diversity and inclusion can be difficult to achieve.
  • Older Employees' Retirement Expectations Face HeadwindsSHRM, July 2022. Amidst economic uncertainty, many older workers are losing confidence in their retirement outlooks. Since workplace retirement plans are one of the primary ways that workers save for retirement, employers should provide retirement resources, tools, and technology to help employees make informed decisions about retirement.
  • How Upskilling Can Drive Employee and Business GrowthForbes, June 2022. High turnover from the “Great Resignation” is pushing many organizations to invest more in employee development. However, small businesses are falling behind. In fact, only 32% of small employers are increasing investments in learning and development this year, compared to 48% of midsize businesses, and 56% of larger enterprises. In a competitive job market in which workers have the advantage, growing businesses can retain talent by creating an engaging work environment where learning is encouraged and applied.
  • Americans Are Embracing Flexible Work—And They Want More of ItMcKinsey & Company, June 2022. Flexible-work offerings have become a fixture of the modern workplace, and McKinsey’s American Opportunity Survey shows 58% of Americans can work from home at least one day a week. This option is notably not limited to white-collar jobs, and when given the chance to work flexibly, 87% of employees take it.
  • Addressing Economic Insecurity in the U.SNational Academy of Social Insurance, June 2022. The National Academy of Social Insurance’s 2019-2021 Economic Security Study Panel’s final report presents the four pillars of labor, benefit, protection, and equity policies as a framework for addressing the many facets of economic insecurity in U.S. society today.
  • Employment Gaps: The Struggle of Re-Entering the WorkforceSHRM, May 2022. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs hosted a roundtable to discuss challenges workers face when re-entering the workforce after periods of unemployment.
  • McKinsey Launches the McKinsey Health InstituteMcKinsey & Company, April 2022. Inspired by the rapid, global response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential to need to combat other health problems, McKinsey launched the McKinsey Health Institute (MHI) to catalyze actions needed across continents, sectors, and communities to realize possible gains in life expectancy and quality of life.
  • Unlocking the Full Potential of Financial Wellness BenefitsMorgan Stanley & SHRM, March 2022. To better understand how financial wellness needs have evolved during the COVID-19 pandemic, Morgan Stanley at Work partnered with SHRM to conduct the first Financial Wellness survey of both HR professionals and workers—those both employed and unemployed.
  • WorkMonitor 2022. Randstad, March 2022. Randstad welcomes a new era of self-determination. After two years of the pandemic, many workers want a fulfilling experience, and they want their employers to align with their personal values. There is also high demand for learning and development opportunities, greater flexibility in work arrangements, as well as the reconsideration of employee value propositions.
  • Companies Renew Efforts to Retain, Hire Older WorkersSHRM, March 2022. In November 2021, 3.6 million more Americans left the labor force and said they didn't want a job than did so in November 2019. Those ages 55-plus accounted for 90 percent of that increase. Workers of all ages are generally looking for the same benefits in their jobs: flexibility in scheduling, meaningful work, and purposeful projects.
  • Stepping Up for Equity: How Employers Can Close the Career, Health, and Wealth Gaps Faced by Black American WorkersMercer, 2022. Data representing more than half a million employees demonstrates that racial disparities in the workplace affect more than unemployment rates and representation in higher-level positions. For employers to make progress on racial equity, future actions could include focusing on the retention of Black employees and developing a stronger internal talent pipeline for Black employees.
  • Caring for the Caregiver: Balancing Work While Caring for OthersMorgan Stanley, 2022. In order to manage their responsibilities, working family caregivers can take time to focus on their own financial health, map out a realistic plan for how much care they can provide, and take advantage of employer benefits like employee assistance programs.
  • Mental Health in America: A 2022 Workplace ReportSHRM, 2022. There is a workplace mental health crisis in America. HR professionals can play an essential role in curating mental health resources. SHRM and Otsuka America Pharmaceutical Inc.’s 2022 mental health workplace benefits study shares findings on what is and isn’t working when it comes to addressing mental health—and why.
  • The Great Attrition: What to Do About the Labor ShortageMcKinsey & Company, December 2021. Organizations across sectors are struggling to meet labor demand. Three sets of potential actions to address this challenge include: making work more fulfilling and sustainable, improving the employer-employee relationship, and acting boldly to entice people back into the workforce and onto the team.
  • How to Take Care of Aging Parents and YourselfFidelity, November 2021. Fidelity outlines steps working family caregivers can take to protect their finances and retirement plans. They could carefully consider the long-term monetary cost of time away from the formal workplace, explore all options for retaining a paycheck and saving for retirement, avoid taking on too many caregiving responsibilities, and prioritize personal time.
  • 'Great Attrition' or 'Great Attraction'? The Choice is YoursMcKinsey & Company, September 2021. McKinsey & Company found the Great Attrition is happening; it’s widespread; and it’s likely to persist—if not accelerate. If companies better understood why employees leave and took meaningful action to retain them, the Great Attrition could become the Great Attraction.
  • The Great Resignation is Upon Us, and Purpose Can Help You Resist its Siren CallFortune, September 2021. After the onset of the pandemic, work life and home life became one in the same for many workers. Employees now seek purpose-driven work and are willing to take new jobs to find it. This signals a need for CEOs and employers to intentionally lead a purpose-driven workplace culture.
  • The Future of Work: Harnessing the Longevity Dividend in a Changing WorldDOW, September 2021. DOW hosted a panel of experts from Mercer, Unilever, 20-First, and Aviva to explore the topic of age inclusion in the workplace. These thought leaders discussed how workplaces are benefiting from a multi-generational workforce as well as flexible employment models.
  • Building the Caregiving Workforce Our Aging World NeedsThe Global Coalition on Aging & Home Instead, July 2021. The pandemic highlighted how older adults are often susceptible to health risks but isolated and marginalized; families are smaller and physically distant, increasing the need for care training and talent; and, there is a shortage of professional care workers. Efforts to build a strong caregiving workforce require collaboration among governments, the private sector, and NGOs.
  • State of the Workplace Financial Benefits StudyMorgan Stanley, 2021. Morgan Stanley’s survey of 1,000 U.S. employed adults and 600 HR executives determined that employees are facing financial distress and want help; equity compensation can drive loyalty and satisfaction; and financial wellness offerings are a competitive advantage. Employers can step in to reduce stress, boost confidence, and improve performance. 
  • Introduction to Financial Wellness. Fidelity, 2021. While employers increasingly prioritize employees’ financial wellness, employees facing debt and the task of saving for retirement also look to employers for support. Fidelity presents an online financial wellness resource that aims to strengthen employees’ money management skills.
  • The Retirement Wave is Here: Are You Prepared?Morgan Stanley at Work, 2021What was once a steady retirement flow has become a wave, accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. On the one hand, this means employers must deal with the cost of the loss of workers. On the other, there are new opportunities available for current workers. With this ongoing shift, a focus on retaining and retraining talent will be more important than ever.

  • COVID-19 and Communicable DiseasesSHRM, 2020-2021. The Society for Human Resource Management creates and compiles resources that aim to help employers adjust and transition workplace policies and practices in the context of the pandemic. Topics covered include return to work, remote work and mask wearing requirements.

  • Reimagining the Post-pandemic WorkforceMcKinsey & Company, July 2020. A hybrid office model where virtual and on-site working is mixed might be harder than it looks – despite its success during the pandemic. McKinsey & Company notes the risk of the long-term erosion of trust, cohesion, and shared culture, while providing guidance on managing hybrid teams.

  • Return to a New Normal: 9 Ways to Prepare for a Comeback. Mercer, 2020. Mercer outlines steps for organizations to take to return to a new normal, establish stability and build energy, including re-examine remote, flexible and blended work; delegate non-core activities to focus on priorities; and focus on cost containment & zero-basing design.

  • Return to the Workplace: Move Forward with Confidence. Mercer, 2020. The return to pre-COVID-19 economic levels will happen in stages. Mercer’s report outlines key considerations for creating plans to return to the workplace including the way this transition is an opportunity to promote digital healthcare and flexible work arrangements.

LLEL Knowledge Partner Resources

  • Understanding and Identifying Gaps in Employer Mental Health ResourcesThe Milken Institute, December 2022. Although employers believe they foster a supportive workplace, US workers feel organizations are falling short on flexibility and resources for mental health. The Milken Institute Center for Public Health investigated possible causes of the mental health gaps in the workplace and discloses key actions that employers can take to close these gaps. It is crucial that employers make mental health benefits accessible, easy to use, and stigma-free.
  • Not Quietly Quitting but Quietly Returning, Older Workers Are Changing Work and RetirementForbes, September 2022. The ‘quiet returning’ of retirees to the workforce is due to reasons ranging from money concerns to a search for something to do. These older adults returning to work are creating a new life stage altogether that sees the retirement age of today as a mile marker, not an exit.
  • Older Workers Are the Solution – Not the Cause – to the UK’s Productivity ProblemThe Centre for Ageing Better, August 2022. In the UK, there are about 800,000 people age 50-64 who are out of work but would like to be working. Misconceptions about older workers prevent them from securing jobs, and there is a tendency for this to go unchecked.
  • Seven Signs of An Age Inclusive CompanyForbes, August 2022. How can you truly tell if a company practices age inclusivity? Sheila Callaham, executive director of Age Equity Alliance, shares ways to identify an age-inclusive company, including 1) review the company’s website to see if they have an age diverse staff and 2) review the company’s DEI policy to check for age as a metric of diversity.
  • The UnretirementStanford Center on Longevity: Century Lives Podcast, June 2022. People 55+ are reinventing life post-retirement from its traditional image to a time for exploring second chapters and especially for opportunities that bring meaning, purpose, and community. What does this new phase of the work experience look like and how can more of us find inspiration as we work longer?
  • Gone for Now, or Gone for Good? Centre for Ageing Better, June 2022. Two years after the start of the pandemic, UK workers in their fifties and sixties are continuing to leave the labor market in droves. The question is, have they gone for now, or have they gone for good? It’s vital for the economy, employers, and individuals, that this is only a temporary hiatus.
  • The Realities of Aging: How We Can Learn from the PandemicThe Milken Institute, April 2022. The COVID-19 pandemic offered learnings on where and how to care for older adults. It also revealed how we are ill-prepared for a growing aging population. The creation of a system that supports aging is necessary. Building that system must include efforts to simplify our health systems, a renewed and relentless focus on the individual, and a reduction of inequities in health. 
  • Workplace Age Bias Hurts Early- And Late-Career WorkersForbes, February 2022. Both younger and older workers experience age discrimination. Companies can start to address these challenges by offering flexible retirement, recognizing that older workers bring unique skills, and considering talent of any age during hiring processes.
  • Signs That Age Equity Is Gaining Workplace Relevance (At Last)Forbes, December 2021. While progress toward workplace age equity has been slow, this past year shows definite signs of improvement. Companies are increasingly prioritizing and committing to age diversity, and bills were introduced to both chambers of the U.S. Congress to address age equity last year.
  • Financial Resilience in America. Stanford Center on Longevity and George Washington University GFLEC, August 2021. Researchers at Stanford and George Washington University examined the concept of financial resilience and associated factors. Results show that financial resilience varies substantially across age, race/ethnicity, gender, and educational attainment. 
  • Survey of Older New Yorkers Uncovers Worrisome Effects of Coronavirus Pandemic. Mailman School of Public Health, July 2021. Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health explored the mental health and social ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic on older adults living at home in NYC. Results show the pandemic negatively also impacted the mental health of New Yorkers living in non-institutional settings. 
  • Inclusive Language in Job Adverts a ‘Win-Win’ for Employers and Jobseekers. Centre for Ageing Better, April 2021. Only 5.5 percent of job adverts posted between March 2019 and March 2020 in the UK mention flexible working, despite this being a huge draw for applicants, and age stereotypical language can affect whether applicants’ feel they would be a good fit for the position and company. The Centre for Ageing Better further reports that using language appealing to older applicants did not deter younger applicants.
  • After COVID: The Future of Lifelong Learning and Workforce Development. The Longevity Project and the Stanford Center on Longevity, April 2021. The Longevity Project and the Stanford Center on Longevity convened a panel of congressional leaders and national experts who analyzed how workforce development should and will adapt to the demands of a post-COVID world, how the American higher education system must change in order to create access to lifelong learning, and how new opportunities for training and re-skilling workers can be supported by the new Congress.
  • Be SMART: A Knowledge Transformation Tool to Improve Financial Literacy. Sau Po Centre on Ageing HKU, 2021. Be SMART (Beyond Self/Money/Age/Retirement/Today) is an interactive learning and educational tool that was developed by Sau Po Centre on Ageing to act as a source of financial education and knowledge for older people and their families. It aims to help users navigate financial systems by addressing common misconceptions.
  • The Future of Work: Insights for 2021 and Beyond. The Milken Institute, 2021. The Milken Institute partnered with technology consulting firm Infosys to conduct a survey on attitudes and perspectives toward remote work and skills training. Based on survey results, the report puts forth recommendations about how to address rising inequality and disruption.
  • 2020 Century Summit: Innovation and Longevity. The Longevity Project and the Stanford Center on Longevity, December 2020. During the Longevity Project and Stanford Center on Longevity’s 2020 Century Summit, a session called “Innovation and Longevity” discussed how business leaders should consider older populations during strategic planning, product and service design, and workforce management.
  • Lifelong Learning and the Lessons of the PandemicThe Longevity Project and the Stanford Center on Longevity, May 2020. The Longevity Project and the Stanford Center on Longevity hosted a virtual panel to discuss learning during shelter-in-place and how that will change learning in the future. The conversation highlighted a call to action to the education community to make sure that the dislocations of the pandemic are more than a temporary diversion but rather a springboard to a better educational system for all Americans. 

OECD Resources

  • Addressing Gendered Ageism: A Better Retirement for All Women. September 2021. On average women receive pensions that are 26 percent lower than those received by men. This pension gap has developed due to discrimination women face based on both their sex and age, referred to as gendered ageism. The OECD’s analysis and recommendations outline a multifaceted approach to improving retirement savings and closing the pension gap, focusing on the futures of young women in the workforce. 
  • What Have Platforms Done to Protect Workers During the COVID-19 Crisis? September 2020. Survey data and desk research conducted by the OECD indicates that along the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, many platform companies have taken measures to protect their workforce which generally has less than standard access to health benefits.
  • Promoting an Age-Inclusive Workforce: Living, Learning, and Earning Longer. 2020. Greater diversity of experience, generations, and skills gives employers an important opportunity to harness the talent that different age groups bring to the workplace and improve productivity and profitability. This report presents a business case for embracing greater age diversity at the workplace and debunks several myths about generational differences in work performance, attitudes and motivations towards work. It points to key employer policies and offers practical examples to support and promote an age-inclusive workforce.

World Economic Forum Resources

  • The Rise of Age-Friendly Jobs in the US. November 2022. The U.S. occupational structure has become substantially more age-friendly over the past 30 years, yet not all older workers have benefited. More targeted policies aimed particularly at male non-graduates and that tackle underlying market imperfections—such as the cost and difficulties of job transition among older workers—are promising areas to explore for expanding impacts.
  • Here's How to Tailor Employee Benefits to A Diverse Workforce. September 2022. Workplace diversity, equity, and inclusion has become central to modern talent attraction and recruitment. Many people associate workplace DEI with employee resource groups and inclusive hiring practices. But companies should also evaluate how employee benefits meet the needs of a multigenerational workforce. 
  • Empathy and Human Connection: How Businesses Can Respond to COVID-19. July 2020. Scott Frisch, AARP’s chief operating officer, highlights insights from LLEL members about the pandemic’s impact on business operations as well as AARP’s protections for workers, such as its adjustment of caregiving policies to accommodate working parents whose children’s schools are closed.
  • Embracing the New Age of Materiality: Harnessing the Pace of Change in ESG. March 2020. The World Economic Forum analyzes how Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) issues have become financially material in order to provide guidance that helps investors as well as companies identify and manage ESG factors.

Further Reading

  • What Employer Supports Would Help Workers Transition into Retirement? The PEW Charitable Trusts, December 2022. Employers have increasingly offered financial wellness programs to assist employees in managing their finances and plan for retirement, but survey data shows that workers don’t make markedly different decisions whether they receive such supports or not. Still, retirees who consulted a financial adviser are somewhat more likely than those who do not to roll the money in their workplace savings programs into individual retirement accounts (IRAs). A lack of significant associations between employer supports and IRA rollover decisions suggests there is an opportunity for employers to increase access to information and education targeted at decisions on what to do with accumulated savings.
  • The Case for Inclusion in the Global WorkforceDeloitte UK, November 2022. All roads to diversity, equity, and inclusion start with a feeling of inclusivity. Inclusion is good for people and for organizations, but there is no getting away from the fact that inclusion can sometimes be difficult to deliver even at a domestic level, so how do we translate this for a global workforce?
  • Is Age Just a Number? Perspectives on Generational Diversity in AsiaThe Conference Board, September 2022. While diversity, equity, and inclusion are growing in strategic importance for companies across Asia, the issue of generational diversity has received only scant attention. This report from The Conference Board of Asia builds upon a recent U.S.-focused report from The Conference Board and aims to draw attention to feelings of inequity and exclusion due to ageism in Asia. It highlights the benefits of promoting generational diversity and offers recommendations for addressing related challenges. 
  • What is 'Quiet Quitting,' and How it May Be a Misnomer for Setting Boundaries at WorkNPR, August 2022. This summer, the term ‘quiet quitting’ gained traction, referring to employees closing their laptop exactly at 5pm and doing only what is assigned—nothing more, nothing less. Quiet quitting is yet another signal that workers’ priorities are shifting in favor of time with family or for themselves more than in the past.
  • Can Blind Recruitment Encourage Applications from Older Workers? ILC UK, July 2022. It’s no secret that recruitment is currently hard. Younger and older workers fell out of work during the early parts of the pandemic. Younger people have mainly returned to the labor market, but the growth in older people in work has stalled. ILC decided to test the effect that a blind recruitment platform could have on the hiring process. Although they received fewer applications, individuals that did apply were more diverse and a better fit for the role. 
  • Workforce Hopes and FearsPwC, May 2022. PwC released the results of its third annual survey investigating current perspectives and reflections of workers on their labor market participation. Survey findings reveal that only 40% of employees said their company is upskilling its workers, while 39% said they’re concerned about not getting sufficient training in digital and technology skills from their employer. PwC’s analysis indicates there are five common factors that make up the “resignation equation”: 1) finding fulfillment in one’s job, 2) one’s ability to be their true self at work, 3) feeling fairly rewarded financially, 4) feeling like colleagues care about one another’s well-being, and 5) feeling like their manager listens to them.
  • Aging: A Family MatterEdelman Financial Engines, April 2022. In an episode of the podcast Everyday Wealth, Soledad O'Brien and Jean Chatzy host Nora Super, executive director of the Milken Institute Center for the Future of Aging, to discuss the link between healthy longevity and financial wellness. Jason Cowans, a wealth planner with Edelman Financial Engines, joins the conversation as well to discuss aging and planning for future health-care costs and living trusts.
  • The Great Resignation? More Like the Great Renegotiation. NPR, January 2022. Most Americans quitting their jobs seem to be aiming to get better ones. Bargaining power has shifted in their favor, giving workers the opportunity to commence a Great Renegotiation. Workers are asking for higher pay, perks, flexibility, and good treatment. Low-wage workers have been distinctly affected by this trend, especially in the context of rising costs of living. A resulting concern is that, as wages increase, so will prices – the start of a potentially troublesome cycle of inflation.
  • The Value of Employing a Multigenerational WorkforceForbes, December 2021. A 75-year-old does not communicate the same way a 25-year-old does. They do not share the same work habits, career goals, and skills – but that is not a bad thing. It creates an opportunity for staff to learn from each other. Peer mentoring, open attitudes towards receiving and responding to feedback, and workplace adaptability can facilitate teamwork and strengthen a company. 
  • Policy Options to Facilitate Work at Older AgesThe Urban Institute, December 2021. To deepen understanding of the labor market activities of older people, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation launched the Working Longer program in 2010. In ensuing years, the program provided over 150 grants focused on availability of older workers, employer demand for their services, and their role in the U.S. labor force. The Urban Institute marked the end of Working Longer with this recorded event, where lessons learned and policy options for facilitating work at older ages were discussed.
  • 6 Strategies to Boost Retention Through the Great ResignationHarvard Business Review, November 2021. With employees jumping ship in record numbers in the United States, companies should make themselves so attractive that employees won’t want to leave. Six strategies can help accomplish that: (1) add monetary incentives for staying, (2) provide better career opportunities, (3) elevate the company’s purpose, (4) prioritize culture and connection, (5) take better care of employees and their families, and (6) embrace flexibility.
  • Hidden Costs of Caring for Aging ParentsFidelity, November 2021. Given that helping an aging loved one can become all-consuming while impacting retirement security, Fidelity outlines steps that caregivers can take to protect their own finances and retirement plans. Working family caregivers should be careful to (1) understand the long-term monetary cost of time away from the formal workplace, (2) explore all options for retaining a paycheck and saving for retirement (3) avoid taking on too many caregiving responsibilities and (4) prioritize personal time.
  • How Older Workers Can Combat Ageism While Job HuntingThe Wall Street Journal, October 2021. Older workers can emphasize experience as an asset they bring to a company, keeping in mind different rationales based on occupation and industry. Older employees have a wealth of contacts as well as job management soft skills, background knowledge about a field, and strong writing and analysis skills – all sharpened over time. On the flip side, they must be sure to demonstrate they are up to date with their field, complete with full knowledge of the latest jargon and buzzwords.
  • Blurred Lines in a Multigenerational, Hybrid WorkforceForbes, October 2021. The five generations of today’s workforce shared the experience of navigating the pandemic, displaying resilience and quickly adapting to a changed workplace. This caused a shift in how workers view their jobs and their purpose. For managers refining their combined online and in-person leadership abilities, five areas to master are: supporting corporate culture, maintaining a flexible mindset, practicing clear communication, setting clear expectations and encouraging cross-generational mentoring. 
  • Four Ways Your Employer Can Help You Care for an Elderly Parent and Have A CareerForbes, August 2021. Forbes outlines recommendations for how caregiving employees can lean on their employers for support such as by tapping into employee assistance programs and opening lines of communication with managers.
  • Good Management and Software Design Can Help Older Workers Thrive with IT-based TasksThe London School of Economics and Political Science, July 2021. Managers can help older employees increase their productivity by strengthening their self-confidence in using organizational IT. Older employees with greater IT-related self-confidence are motivated to perform tasks using IT, which enables them to maintain consistent information processing speeds and multitasking capabilities.
  • Older Americans Are on the Front Line of the Student Debt CrisisBloomberg, June 2021. The fastest-growing chunk of the U.S.’s $1.7 trillion student-loan pile is held by the oldest borrowers. Many older borrowers found themselves saddled with high interest rate loans after taking them out to help their children or to go back to school later in life. Since the student loan debt crisis spans across generations, it is increasingly difficult for both younger and older Americans to start careers or retire.
  • Why is age discrimination so different for Black workers? Washington Post, May 2021. For Black workers, age discrimination is highest for the youngest, falls in middle age, and rises once more as workers near retirement. A new experiment at Texas A&M University helps illustrate the surprising pattern, which has not been widely studied but tends to line up with Labor Department data reviewed by The Washington Post: Black workers are typically less likely to be hired than White workers with the same experience, but the gap closes in middle age.
  • Changed by pandemic, many workers won't return to old jobsAssociated Press, May 2021. Layoffs and lockdowns, combined with enhanced unemployment benefits and stimulus checks, gave many Americans the time and the financial cushion to rethink their careers. Their former employers are hiring again — and some, like Uber and McDonald’s, are offering higher pay — but workers remain hesitant.
  • Enabling Age at Work: How Ageism & Ableism Overlap in the WorkplaceILC UK, May 2021. Researchers at VU Amsterdam & the University of Kent report that while professional development opportunities are too often deemed more relevant for younger workers, occupational health support remains a key resource for older individuals.
  • The Future of Work: A Hybrid Work ModelAccenture, April 2021. The Accenture Future of Work Study 2021 explored what people need to be healthy and productive in a new era of work. A majority of workers (83%) prefer a hybrid work model, but a variety of factors influence their ability to thrive, whether they’re onsite or off. 
  • Training and Upskilling Older Workers is Crucial in the RecoveryWorking Nation, April 2021. Ramsey Alwin, president and CEO of the National Council on Aging, and Ramona Schindelheim, editor in chief for Working Nation, discuss how to make sure older workers are not left behind by post-pandemic economic recovery. Investing in upskilling and training for older workers is outlined as crucial. This will allow older adults to obtain the skills and tools that make them eligible for any newly created positions.
  • Global Report on AgeismUnited Nations, March 2021. The World Health Organization outlines a framework for action to reduce ageism including recommendations for specific actors (e.g., government, United Nations agencies, civil society organizations, the private sector). View the recording of launch here.
  • Slipping between the cracks? Retirement income prospects for Generation XILC UK, 2021. The International Longevity Center UK & Phoenix Group provide recommendations to facilitate retirement for the so-called “sandwich generation” which joined the workforce too late to benefit from salary pension schemes and too early to benefit from auto-enrollment for workplace pensions.
  • Workforce for Tomorrow: Innovating for an Ageing WorkforceILC UK, December 2020. The International Longevity Center UK sets the context for its international programme of work, supported by the Innovation Resource Center for Human Resources, which aims to identify the challenges and innovations that may affect responses to the aging workforce. Key areas of focus include: maintaining good health, building knowledge, skills and competence, addressing discrimination and supporting diversity, and adapting to the workplace.
  • Improving economic opportunity for older workersBrookings Institution, November 2020. The Brookings Institution hosted a webinar where leading labor experts discussed challenges to work at older ages as well as proposed policy changes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Reimagining the Postpandemic WorkforceMcKinsey & Company, July 2020. A hybrid office model where virtual and on-site working is mixed might be harder than it looks – despite its success during the pandemic. McKinsey & Company notes the risk of the long-term erosion of trust, cohesion and shared culture, while providing guidance on managing hybrid teams.
  • What Jobs Do Employers Want Older Workers to Do? Center for Retirement Research, Boston College, June 2020. The Center for Retirement Research at Boston College analyzes a sample of job postings on RetirementJobs.com, a national job board that targets job seekers over age 50. Job characteristics, location and compensation are compared to those in postings from other online job boards that are not targeted at a specific age group. The data suggests older workers can find remunerative work, and policymakers can take action to address any gaps in available benefits accompanying that work. 
  • The Postgenerational Workforce: From Millennials to PerennialsDeloitte, May 2020. Given today’s multigenerational workforce, the behaviors, values and attitudes of a single age group or generation cannot adequately represent the workforce as a whole. Organizations that take the opportunity to design and implement workforce strategies and programs that are more targeted toward workers’ individual attributes can enable workers to maximize their contributions and derive enhanced meaning in their careers.

Contact for more information
Jeffrey Gullo, AARP
jgullo@aarp.org 

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